Carlo F. Perno, MD, PhD, is Professor of Virology at the University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata', Italy, and Director of the Unit of Molecular Virology at the Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome, Italy. He also works as consultant of Clinical Virology at the Spallanzani Hospital for Infectious Diseases. Professor Perno gained his MD from the University of Rome in 1980, and graduated in oncology in 1983. From 1986 to 1989 he worked as Research Fellow at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, where he collaborated to the discovery and clinical application of the first antiviral drugs used in the therapy of HIV infection, including AZT, ddC, d4T and ddI. Professor Perno has written hundreds of scientific publications, including peer reviewed articles in high ranking journals (Nature, Science, Lancet, PNAS, J Experimental Medicine, PNAS), mostly dedicated to HIV therapy. In 2001 the European Community awarded him the Descartes Award for excellence in the antiviral field. He has a major expertise in antiviral therapy, clinical interpretation and therapeutic application of antiviral resistance testing.