Gabriella Scarlatti is head of the research unit Viral Evolution and Transmission at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy, and Professor at the Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. She has been studying the pathogenic mechanisms of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission and paediatric HIV/AIDS, introducing in the early 90ies the concept of virus phenotypic and genotypic evolution and selection during transmission. Dr. Scarlatti's main current research interests are the pathogenic mechanism driving viral transmission at mucosal sites and B cell responses in the view of developing a vaccine against HIV. She coordinates the Humoral Immunity Platform of the FP6-EC Network of Excellence EUROPRISE and the FP7-EC project NGIN “Next generation immunogens inducing broadly reactivity neutralising antibodies”. A network devoted to develop new immunogens, adjuvants and delivery systems, to be used as vaccine against HIV-1.