Badara Samb, MD, PhD, is the Director, Office of Special Initiatives at UNAIDS. In this capacity, he leads the work of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV treatment. He is also a professor of health and international relations at the Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations. A pioneer of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, Dr Samb designed the first HIV treatment programmes in over 30 countries and led the first in-country negotiations to reduce the price of antiretroviral therapy in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean. More recently, Dr Samb spearheaded the conceptualization and launch of the 90-90-90 treatment target, which aims to leverage the therapeutic and preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. Dr Samb began his career as a community physician in rural Senegal before joining the French Institute for Medical Research (INSERM), where he served for more than 10 years as a senior epidemiologist and tenured researcher. He has led or co-led numerous research and implementation programmes and widely published in leading peer-reviewed medical professional journals. Dr Samb received his medical degree from the University Cheikh Anta Diop, in Dakar, and a PhD in Public Health from the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris. In 2003, the International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom, granted Dr Samb the International Health Professional of the Year award by the International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom.